Since the beginning of filmmaking, the role of make-up artists has been crucial. Skilled artists are responsible for enhancing the look of actors and actresses for the big screen and sometimes making them totally unrecognisable to audiences with the help of prosthetics and special effects make-up.
But it wasn’t until 1981 that the first Oscar for best make-up was awarded. Rick Baker was the first winner for An American Werewolf in London – famous for the use of prosthetics and special effects make-up to the achieve gruesome looks.
That’s not to say the use of prosthetics and special effects make-up wasn’t used before then. As early as the 1920s, Lon Chaney was transforming himself for film roles, making him known as ‘The man of a thousand faces. And in the 1930s, make-up artist Jack Pierce was creating now iconic character looks like Frankenstein’s monster.
As prosthetics evolve, their use in film becomes more and more ground breaking. Take a look at some of the most notable uses of prosthetics in film – from silent movies to modern day blockbusters.
In what might be one of the earliest uses of special effects make-up, Lon Chaney starred as the ghoulish phantom, and did his own make-up. The studio remained secretive about how the look was achieved, but it’s rumoured that Chaney stuck fish skin to his nose to achieve the tilted-up effect.
In the 1930s, make-up artist Jack Pierce and actor Boris Karloff worked together on several films where Karloff was turned into visually breath-taking monsters. In one of their most famous productions, The Mummy, Karloff was turned into a decaying Egyptian priest. Pierce wrapped Karloff in linen bandages and used materials including collodion and spirit gum to create the character, something which Karloff described as “the most trying ordeal I ever endured”.
It’s a common myth that Marlon Brando stuffed cotton balls in his cheeks to get that jowly look that Don Vito Corleone sports in The Godfather. In fact, make-up artist Dick Smith created a dental prosthetic and used resin plumpers to make Brando’s jawline more drooped.
At the time of filming, Brando was only 47 and had to sit through 3-hours of make-up everyday so he appeared aged.
Ve Neill has been awarded 3 Oscars over the course of her career as a make-up artist. Her work on Edward Scissorhands was also nominated for an Academy Award. The character’s pasty white complexion was covered in scars, which Ve Neill created using sheets of ready-made scar effects that were stuck to Johnny Depp’s face. By the end of filming, the wardrobe and make-up team managed to get the application time down to 1 hour and 45 minutes.
Lately, everyone has been talking about Gary Oldman’s unrecognisable look as Winston Churchill. Prosthetics make-up artist Kazuhiro Tsuji came out of retirement and said one of the biggest challenges was that Gary Oldman’s eyes were totally different to Churchill’s.
To overcome this, Tsuji used prosthetics only where it was necessary, and created a wig from baby hair to achieve a realistic look.
We asked prosthetics expert and course co-ordinator at Iver, Neill Gorton, who’s worked on productions including Doctor Who, Saving Private Ryan and Ex Machina, his thoughts on how special effects make up has evolved…
In these early days of black and white films, special effects make-up had its limitations and actors had to work hard to bring the character to life. Over time, as technology has developed, new products have come to the market allowing make-up artists to do even more with the tools they have.
Prosthetics and special effects make-up is used in film to turn the cast into characters, or advance a storyline with effects like injuries and ageing. It’s even used to create the life-like puppets or dummies, like corpses, you see on screen.
It’s been around long before CGI and continues to be an important aspect of filmmaking. In modern filmmaking, it’s likely that a combination of practical special effects make-up and CGI are used to achieve the desired look.
Some early uses of prosthetics in film may seem a little primitive today. When Jack Pierce created Frankenstein’s monster, he had to glue cheesecloth to the actor’s face and used a green greasepaint to cover it.
Black and white films didn’t pick up as much detail as today’s high-resolution cameras capture, so make-up artists could use the most practical materials available to them.
Today, developments in technology means high-resolution cameras are more sensitive to colour and materials need to be more refined, so they look realistic.
The demand for prosthetics to look and move like real skin has led to the popularity of silicone.
Silicone has been used to create materials like Sculpt Gel. One of the most popular materials in the industry, Sculpt Gel can be used to create ‘out-of-the-kit’ wounds and effects.
Make-up artists can mould facial features, scars, and more with Sculpt Gel and it sticks to mobile areas of the body like the mouth and neck – so actors' appearances are altered without restricting movement.
For larger pieces, foam latex or silicone rubber is frequently used. A life cast of the actor is taken and the sculpture is created before a mould is taken and the silicone or latex poured into the mould. This is popular for creating masks or body pieces like in Planet of the Apes.
Neill and his team of experts from Gorton Studio will be delivering the 3-week Prosthetics Course here at The Iver Make-up Academy.